Castor & Wheel Guide



Selection Criteria & Product Evaluation

Load Capacity

Castors should always travel firmly on the floor and observation & evaluation of the different combinations fitted to the equipment, which can be seen in the Castor Combination Section of this site. Castors always briefly lose contact with the floor on uneven floors and will encounter obstacles during the use of the equipment as well as potholes etc. This will cause sudden overload when the load will be point loaded away from all points of ground contact. A higher Static load is often specified when the equipment is loaded but not subject to movement when under load, A Dynamic load is then also specified for the instance when the equipment under way & therefore dynamic.

Rolling Resistance

A resistance has to be overcome with a force to get an object on castors moving or to steer it, this is known as Rolling Resistance or Tractive Resistance. The level of this resistance depends on various factors: Load, Wheel Diameter, Material and shape of the tread, overhang of the castor  (is shown in the specification as the Swivel Radius), Size & type of the  wheel bearing & of course the Ground on which the castor will be used. When selecting a castor or wheel it is Important to evaluate all these factors and if you are unsure then please consult any of our sales technician’s on 0161 273 2626 or

The following product information on wheels and castors must be observed. Any non-compliance with the following specifications will exempt the manufacturer from his liability.

1.0 Product Information and Intended Use

 in the general sense of this definition are generally exchangeable components which can be fitted to suitable appliances, furniture and transport equipment or similar products to make them mobile.

The present product information refers to wheels and castors, particularly to passively steering castors (swivel castors), for non-automatically driven vehicles and appliances, hereinafter referred to as "objects", which are principally driven at walking speed and not run in continuous operation.

Wheels and castors in the sense of this product information can be classified into the following application areas:

Residential sector:
E.g. seating furniture, house furniture

Service sector:

General service applications, e.g. trolleys, office furniture
Hospitals, e.g. hospital beds
Industrial sector:
E.g. transport equipment of medium to heavy load capacities

Load Rating Calculation

The load rating give on this Web site is per castor.
The Load bearing of castor in sets is as follows

Set of 4 castors placed equally at the corners where floor may have any uneven surface
= castor load X 3

Set of 4 castors placed equally at the corners where floor is confirmed to be complettely flat and free from any obstruction. = castor load X 4

Set of 4 castors 2 x fixed placed parrellel Centrally & 2 swivel centrally at each end (Diamond Pattern) = castor load X 2

Set of 3 castors 2 x fixed & 1 swivel = castors load x 2.5

Set of 3 castors swivel = castor load X 2

2.0 Misuse

Misuse, i.e. utilization of wheels and castors for purposes other than specified as intended use is for example if:

a) Wheels and castors are used with higher load capacities than those specified in the catalogue.
b) The objects are used on unsuitable, uneven floors.
c) The ambient temperatures are too high or too low.
d) The objects are moved by force with the wheels locked.
e) The objects are exposed to particularly aggressive substances.
f) The objects are subjected to improper rough impact and shock loads.
g) Foreign matter may intrude into the tyres.
h) Wheels and castors are used at excessive speeds.
i) Modifications not approved by the manufacturer.
j) power towing over 4kph
k)temperature normal range is -20c to +80c Although below -5c the performance can be impared.
l) Low Temperature Products can be supplied at extra cost with a range of -40c to +80c

5.0 Information and Instruction Obligations

The following documents are available for the compliance with information and instruction obligations as well as maintenance requirements in accordance with the German product liability law:

For the trade sector:
Catalogues with product and user information
For the processing sector:
Catalogues with product and user information
For the user:
Product and user information

Any and all illustrations, drawings, dimensions, etc. are subject to changes and are therefore non-binding.

For compliance with the products´ intended use, correct fitting is particularly important:
a) The product must be firmly fitted to the object at all provided fitting points.
b) The object must show sufficient retaining strength at these points.
c) The product´s function must not be affected or changed by the fitting arrangement
d) Swivel castors must be fitted with their swivel axles in vertical direction.
e) Fixed castors must be fitted with their wheel axles in alignment.
f) Only swivel castors of the same type may be fitted to an object. If fixed castors are also fitted, only castors recommended for such fitting by the manufacturer may be used.

Products used in damp areas, products exposed to direct weathering as well as products used near the sea or in aggressive, corrosion-developing ambiences require approval as special versions.

Products used in a temperature range below 5° C and above 30° C require approval as special versions. Under no circumstances must standard products with nominal load be used under such conditions.

Wheels, brackets, brake systems and axle accessories represent one functional unit. Liability can only be granted for original products.

All possible loads must be known for the selection of wheels. Otherwise, such loads are to be estimated in accordance with sufficiently increased safety factors.

3.0 Product Specifications

Where no product specifications are contained in our catalogues, brochures, specification sheets, etc., the requirements placed upon our wheels and castors and the components thereof must be agreed with us.

Within this context, the relevant DIN, ISO and CEN standards as well as the quality standard RAL-RG 607/10 are applicable.

4.0 Product Maintenance

Depending on the respective requirements, wheels and castors must be serviced at regular intervals:

By lubrication of the bearings,
By readjustment of non-permanent connections.

Only cleaning agents which contain no corrosion-developing or damaging substances may be used.

Castors and castor components must be replaced as soon as function failures are detected.

For assurance of the wheels´ and castors´ functionality:

The trade sector is obliged to observe the specifications of this product information (Sections 1.0 - 5.0) as well as those of the user information, to obtain them from the manufacturer if required, and to forward them to the processing unit.
The processing sector is obliged to observe the specifications of this product information (Sections 1.0 - 5.0) as well as those of the user information, to obtain them from the manufacturer if required, and to forward them to the user.

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P & L Industrial Equipment Ltd, Britannia House, Unit 3, Edwin Road, Manchester, M11 3ER, United Kingdom
Tel: 0161 273 2626
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